How to design a 20 hour Exam preparation course for ESL students sitting american EFL exams

COURSE PLANNING ASSIGNMENT


      Focus on

“A twenty -hour course for ECCE students prior to their taking the exam”











Candidate’s   Name: Paraskevi Andreopoulou
Centre Number: GR 108
Candidate’s number:
Number of Words: 4425








      
                 











Contents:

  1. Introduction……………………………………………3

  1. The different Educational value Systems………………3
2.1.Classical Humanism…………………………….3

2.2.Reconstructionism……………………………….4

2.3.Progressivism……………………………………4


  1. Designing an Exam Preparatory Syllabus……………… 5
3.1.Usefulness in Recycling…………………………6

3.2.Class Profile……………………………………..6

  1. Needs Analysis…………………………………………..7
4.1.Learners and their Needs…………………………8

  1. Objectives and Materials………………………………….8

  1.  Performance Objectives………………………………….9

  1. Specific Areas of Teaching………………………………..9
7.1.Listening ………………………………………….9
7.2.GVR Practice…………………………………….10
7.3.Writing……………………………………………10
7.4.Speaking………………………………………….10

8.      Materials to be used………………………………………11

9.      Course Presentation………………………………………11

10.  Course Evaluation………………………………………..12

11.  Conclusion…………………………………………………12



                  









1. Introduction
There are several conflicting views on what syllabus design is; it is seen concerned essentially with the selection and grading of content – it replaces the concept of “method” and it is now seen as an instrument by which the teacher, with the help of the syllabus designer, can achieve a degree of “fit” between the needs and aims of the learner and the activities which will take place in the classroom (Yalden 1984:14 cited in Nunan 1988).
       Howard B. Altman and William E. Canshin state that etymologically syllabus means a “table of contents”, whose aim is to communicate to students what the course is about , where it is going, and what will be required of them to complete the course with a passing grade (Altman, H.B. May 1989).
        Others, such as Shaw 1977 who quotes Robertson 1971, pg. 564 draws a clear distinction between syllabus and curriculum: “……. The curriculum includes the goals, content, processes, resources and means of evaluation of all the learning experiences planned for pupils in and out of the school and community through classroom instruction and related programs…..”; then, he defines syllabus “……..as a statement of the plan for any part of the curriculum, excluding the element of curriculum evaluation and it should be viewed in the context of an ongoing curriculum development process”.




2. The different educational value systems
          Classical humanism
The classical humanism has given rise to the well-known grammar-translation approach, whose content to be taught and learnt is expressed in terms of phonology, grammar and vocabulary that are seen to make up a particular language (Clark 1987).
In brief, the so-called structural syllabus leads to a curriculum in which:
·         The fundamental aim is to promote generalizable intellectual capacities
·         An analysis of the content of a particular subject into its constituent elements of knowledge determines what is to be taught and learnt.
·         The course book is created to cover the various elements of knowledge
·         Unit-by-unit objectives are seen in terms of conscious control of the various elements of knowledge set out along the way
·         The methodology employed lays emphasis on conscious awareness of rules and patterns, and subsequent application of them in controlled and more open contexts
·         Assessment is norm-referenced and concerned with the selection and placement of those who will enter the next stage of education
·         Reporting is seen in terms of awarding each pupil an aggregate mark for each subject studied (Clark 1987).





Reconstructionism
In curriculum design, reconstructionism has given rise to the “ends-means” approach and in the classroom to “mastery learning” technique, which should be viewed as a factor determining the amount of time one requires to learn a particular behaviour to a given level in ideal conditions (Calloll 1971 cited in Clark 1987).
         Reconstructionism resembles the desired communicative capacity, what is called the Functional- Notional Syllabus? Its advantage is that it takes the communicative facts of language into account from the beginning, without losing sight of grammatical and situational factors. It produces communicative competence and it sustains the motivation of the learners. It can also ensure that the most important grammatical forms are included and it can cover all kinds of language functions.
            It should be considered what the learners should most usefully be able to communicate in the foreign language; upon this is established, the most appropriate forms for each type of communication can be decided, primarily semantic and then structural (D.A. Wilkins 1976).
        As Nunan 1988 claims though, functional – notional syllabuses designers need to look beyond linguistic notions of simplicity and difficulty when it comes to grading items. Widdowson also pointed out in 1979 that inventories of functions and notions do not necessarily reflect the way languages are learnt any more than structural syllabuses do. He also states that dividing the language into discrete units of whatever type misrepresents the nature of language as communication (cited in Nunan 1988).



Progressivism
Content-based Instruction
Content-syllabuses differ from task-based ones in that the experiential content is the major factor in learning with little or no direct/ explicit reference to language (Krahnke, 1987: 65 cited in Richards and Rodgers 2001).
         Content- based instruction is grounded on two central principles:
  1. People learn languages more successfully when they use the language as means of acquiring information, rather as an end in itself.
  2. It better reflects learners’ needs for learning a second language.
As Richards and Rodgers 2001 believe the content and instructional sequence is chosen according to language learning goals.
               There is macro- and micro-structuring of the year long syllabus; at the macro-level, the syllabus consists of modules selected to reflect student interests and a multidisciplinary perspective. The modules are designed and sequenced so that they “relate to one another so as to create a cohesive transition of certain skills, vocabulary, structures and concepts”. The first modules are ordered so that early modules have easily accessible, high-interest themes. “Later modules deal with more technical processes and assume mastery of certain skills, vocabulary, structures and concepts” (Brinton et al., 1989:35).
               The micro-structure is such that: all modules move from an initial exercise to intended to stimulate student interest in the theme through a variety of exercises aimed at developing comprehension and student ability to manipulate the language appropriate to the situation and use the language of the texts. The final activities of each module require the students themselves to choose the appropriate language for the situation and use it in communicative interaction (Brinton et al. 1989:34).
        
          






  1. Designing an Exam Preparatory Syllabus
An exam preparatory course presupposes good language development skills and systematic recycling of all the skills to candidates, whose aim is obtaining the ECCE (corresponding to Level B2 – Independent User of the Common European Framework) certificate, which will be immediately useful for them to get a job in private or public sector.
     The University of Michigan for the Certificate of Competency (ECCE) is designed for learners of English who are at least at intermediate level; it tests their linguistic competence in all four language skills. Typically, learners at this level can successfully convey their ideas in English, without making serious mistakes which impede communication.
             The test is addressed to adolescent and adult learners of English who wish to provide documentation for educational and professional purposes. The written part of the exam comprises the Listening, Grammar, Vocabulary, Reading and Writing sections, lasting approximately three hours the instructions included, whilst the oral part lasts approximately ten to fifteen minutes.
As Yalden 1983 has pointed out, adults acquire language through other means than formal study and emphasize activities which focus on the act of communication and the message to be communicated rather than on the linguistic means and formal study involved. Therefore, it seems that interest in and prominence given to teaching activities which center on the language-learning process is on the increase and that has happened from many areas of psychological research.


3.1. Usefulness in Recycling
It has been argued that for courses in General English, it is unnecessary to depart from revision of grammatical structures and learning long lists of vocabulary, since if the learners have a good command of structures and lexis, communication comes in good time and it is much safer to obtain the certificate, therefore, recycling is an essential factor in this case. As a result, one might equip the learners with the full grammatical resources and let the rest come later.
     On the other hand, using the target language as medium of play and instruction in the EFL classroom by means of range of activities – topics, language functions, and themes- definitely makes the language more memorable for the candidates wishing to take the exam later and it also provides a desirable end in itself (Yalden 1983)
3.2. Class Profile
The main objective of this essay is the design of a syllabus for a class of upper-intermediate learners of English, whose aim is sitting for the ECCE. The class consists of a group of seven learners taking a preparatory course for the exam session in December; in fact, they are taking a three- month course to revise what they have been taught so far and to further practice all of the skills in the format of doing practice tests.
            All seven members of the group are secondary students of the Technical Vocational School on Paros and are instrumentally motivated, since their main objective is to obtain the certificate. Four of them are interested in obtaining the certificate for professional purposes only, and the rest of them are considering the prospect of continuing their studies in Technological Educational Institutions all over Greece (one of them expressed the wish of becoming an accountant). Moreover, all of them realize the need to achieve the passing grade, to recycle what they have been taught and to read lots of English during their studies (subscribe in English magazines and access on the Internet), since many of the texts on the Reading Section of the exam are extracts of these resources.
                      The outcome of this exam syllabus will be a seventy-two hour course that will be conducted over a three-month period. The course will comprise two-hour lessons that will be held three times a week.



  1. Needs Analysis
A crucial criterion when designing a syllabus is the students’ needs. Brindley 1984:31 distinguishes “objective” from “subjective” needs, in that “objective” are the needs which are derived from learners’ personal data along with information about their language proficiency and patterns of language use, whereas the “subjective” needs are personality traits, i.e. wants, desires expectations, that cannot be diagnosed so easily and in many cases even stated by the learners themselves (cited in Nunan 1988).
                   Munby 1978 considers the variables that affect communication needs and organizes and divides them into a priori and a posteriori parameters: purposive domain (educational & occupational purposes), setting, interaction and instrumentality (channel, mode & medium of communication); the a posteriori parameters are: dialect, target level (size, complexity, range, delicacy, speed & flexibility), communicative event and communicative key.
                  Taking into account the identification of the learners’ needs, they will be defined through a needs analysis questionnaire that is going to reveal their preferred learning styles. The information collected will be used to establish realistic objectives for the particular group.
                   The group is homogeneous in the same aim, since all the candidates share a common purpose; the syllabus will be designed to recycle all the patterns, lexis of the language, to extend their reading skills and to practice their aural / oral skills for preparation of the exam venue in December.




      

 4.1. Learners and their needs
Based on the information from the questionnaire and the feedback session in class, their requirements can be described as follows:
·         To revise all the language patterns and lexis to be tested basic knowledge of grammar and vocabulary
·         To develop their reading skills through authentic reading texts to tackle the relevant section of the exam.
·         To practice listening to short dialogues and announcements on TV, listening to songs and radio broadcasts and having access to the WWW to handle this section of the exam.
·          To develop writing through letters and essays based on a given task on which they have to expound their views; they can develop it through team writing.
·         To develop their speaking skills through a two-way conversation; theme-based pictures and assigned tasks will guide candidates to handle the exam section.





  1. Objectives and Materials
I will attempt to recommend a syllabus that promotes via materials and activities content-based instruction that will enhance their skills. Both the lesson and the activities coincide with the learners’ needs.



             6. Performance Objectives
By the end of this course, students are expected to have been introduced to many activities in order to revise the material required for the ECCE exam:
·         Students are expected to identify the relationship between the speakers, the content of the conversation and its setting; for part two, they are asked to have a general understanding of a radio interview in the listening section.
·         For the GVR section, students are expected to consider what structure or lexis is appropriate in the context of the sentence; and for the reading section, learners are required to skim and scan the text, to understand the main idea, to make inferences, to comprehend word definition and to understand supporting ideas.
·         Learners are expected to express their ideas clearly and comprehensibly in a letter or an essay in a given task; this will determine the style and kind of language they are going to use in group writing first and then individually, for the writing section.
·         For the Speaking section, students are required to have an interview with the examiner giving personal information and talking about thematically-linked pictures and be given situations to ask questions to make a choice.
            7. Specific Areas of Teaching
 Drawing upon the needs analysis procedure, the following areas will be included:


Listening: practice / training in:
  • Recognition to the speakers’ intonation and word stress
  • Inference to the speakers’ feelings, mood and attitude
  • Taking notes of the most important details to remember information
  • Careful listening of the interviewer’s queries


GVR: practice / training in:
  • Careful consideration of short exchanges
  • Learning & breaking down words in context
  • developing vocabulary in authentic English and access to the web
  • To locate information, to underline parts of the text ,to interpret ideas, to get the gist of it and to determine the correct phrase


Writing: practice / training in:   
  • Consider the given situation and underline appropriate information to determine the style and the kind of the language they use
  • To gather ideas respective to any piece of information from the task
  • To establish the relevant framework
  • To match up the gathered information with the appropriate paragraphs of the framework


Speaking: practice / training in:
  • To practice talking about themselves
  • To describe thematically-linked pictures using the relevant language
  • To practice asking questions to gather ideas and make informed choices
·           To justify their choices and explain why they reject the other two  options





8. Materials to be used
As Nunan 1985a:38 points out “authentic” materials should be used to teach language from different sources: video clips, TV, radio and newspaper recordings, signs, maps & charts, etc….in a learner-cent red curriculum. On the other hand, Brinton et al., 1989:17 propones that authenticity may need modification to ensure maximum comprehensibility. This may mean linguistic simplification or adding redundancy to text materials; it will certainly mean “providing guides and strategies to assist students in comprehending the materials” (: ibid).
           Materials development for this particular class will follow the lines of the syllabus design. Materials range from photocopiable ECCE practice tests and other activities, such as modified reading brochures, a given task for the writing, visual prompts for the speaking with given situations and simplified listening tasks with work sheets for taking notes.    


  1.  Course Presentation
 I will attempt to apply the principles of syllabus design in action for these identified candidates. The syllabus is arranged in content-based situations that relate to students’ specified needs. This content-based instruction follows the sequence determined by a particular subject matter in dealing with the language problems which students encounter (Brinton, et. al., 1989:2).  
       Recycling is the principle of the course. Revision takes place in the form of practice tests in meaningful situations for all the sections of the exam; the listening, GVR and speaking tasks of the exam serve the students’ needs and the main course objective: to enable students to tackle the ECCE exam. More specifically, revising through content-based procedure will provide them with the opportunity to recall, consolidate and assimilate the essential exam material.




  1.  Course Evaluation
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the course, the following areas will be considered:
  • Informal learner assessment through feedback sessions in classroom; to diagnose any difficulties and to recommend possible solutions within the classroom setting.
  • Completion of a course evaluation form on the effectiveness of practice tests, after the practice test exam period.
  • Final assessment through a final Michigan Past Paper ECCE exam May 1994 at the end of the course to evaluate all the work done during the
  • Course and to prepare learners before their exam venue.

    


14.                         Conclusion
Designing a syllabus for ECCE candidates has been a valuable experience for me, since it was the first time I had been actively involved in identifying the students’ needs prior to their exam venue, creating a syllabus tailored to their needs and teaching it.  Despite the tremendously valuable expertise of professional syllabus designers, I recommend instructors be more actively involved in designing syllabuses for their students, since those are the ones who are aware of their students’ needs better than anyone else.   

      



               


                                             APPENDICES
                                                            Lesson 1
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Listening
Questionnaire identifying Ss’ needs.

 To raise student awareness in the course specified.

Reading



None


Discussion of aims of the course; syllabus presentation.

To present and discuss aims of the course with the students.


Speaking




None





Listening
Part One:
30 short dialogues & announcements spoken only once; Ss are to choose one among three visual prompts.






To test their ability to understand spoken English in everyday situations; to identify the relationship between speakers, the content of the conversation, the setting and possible functions.





Listening











Topic:
Dialogues and announcements

Teach Listening:
Use of visuals in combination with the radio talk and Ss decide in pairs which one to choose.





Part Two:
A radio program me on which Ss are listening to and taking down notes (writing down the most important details).


To understand a longer talk, to listen out for specific details to extract specific information and careful listening to word stress and intonation.


Listening


Topic:
Radio interview

Teach Listening:
Use of video shows with images off, taking on the roles of each character and keeping notes.



        



                                                Lesson 2
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Grammar
Short exchanges amongst native speakers covering every day issues.
To revise tense usage, word order, syntax; to develop grammatical competence.
Grammar
Topic:
 Authentic dialogues reflecting every day issues

Teaching Grammar :
Role cards, information-gap activities, role-plays, semi-authentic dialogues, opinion-gap activities, narrating stories, communication games.






                                                  Lesson 3
Task
Objective
Skill Focus
Vocabulary
Short segments of dialogues reflecting real life situations amongst native speakers to convey messages and to interact amongst them.











To develop lexical competence and to expand vocabulary

Vocabulary
Topic:
Presentation of a wide variety of authentic texts with thematically-related vocabulary, i.e. family


Teaching Vocabulary:
Presentation of video segments, acting out of similar simulated situations, extensive reading, class readers, literature ,reading newspaper articles, magazines , listening to songs video /internet games.

                                                          Lesson 4

Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Reading



Reading a wide variety of different texts in the form of newspaper articles, magazine articles, reports and brochures.





To develop top-down and bottom-up processing skills, to make inferences, skimming & scanning for Parts 1,2 &3; word definitions, to get the gist and to understand supporting ideas.
Reading
Topic:
A plethora of reading texts from a newspaper / magazine article to an essay and a story relating to the exam task nature.

Teaching Reading:
Distribution and total exploitation of reading texts via group work; each task exploited separately.

                                                    Lesson 5


Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Writing


Writing a letter or an essay (about 150-175 words- a page long) based on a prompt, which can be published in a magazine, a newspaper or a memo.






To test candidates’ ability to express their ideas in a clear and comprehensible way; the letter or the essay must reflect their views on the ideas presented by the prompt.
 Writing
Topic:
The assigned task relating to the exam task nature.

Teaching Writing:
Task analysis, at first; underlining the important details and providing with solutions, next. Brainstorming and ordering of ideas into a framework.

                



                                                  Lesson 6
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Speaking
An interview with the examiner.

To assess the candidate’s oral production skills.

Speaking



None


 
Part One:
Candidates give personal information about themselves.





To familiarize them with the exam environment setting and to make the candidates feel comfortable by talking topics of interest.


Speaking









   Topic:
Personal data

Teaching Speaking:
Rehearsals talking about oneself.



Part Two:
A set of thematically-linked pictures and queries asked on them; assignment of a task-based situation.







 To describe the visuals, relate them to one topic-based situation and to ask queries in order to make their respective choices.









Speaking














Topic:
Thematically- related visual prompts

Teaching Speaking:
 Visual aids description and provision with respective data; then, informed choices are made.








Part Three:
After gathered information, candidates are expected to report their findings, explaining their choices, too.




To negotiate agreement, to provide sufficient explanation for their choices, to justify their opinions and to exchange interaction with the interlocutor.




Speaking



    Topic:
The content-based situation

Teaching  Speaking:
Use of data and a list of respective choices will negotiate agreement / disagreement.



             
                                           Lesson 7
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Listening
Listening:
Part 1:
To a series of thirty short exchanges between native speakers, reflecting real life situations.
To recognize setting, speakers and purpose, to infer speakers’ mood, feeling and attitude and to recognize speaker`s stress & intonation
Listening
Topic:
Dialogues, Announcements and timetables

Teaching Listening Part 1:
Acting out role-plays covering real life issues and reading/listening to texts related to timetables and announcements

                                             Lesson 8

Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Listening


Listening:
Part 2:
To a radio interview between a reporter and a scientist covering all the aspects of an issue, i.e. environmental protection



To take notes of the most important details to remember information and to carefully listen of the interviewer’s queries

Listening
Topic:
A radio interview

Teaching Listening Part 2:
Watching an interview of a similar kind on the video, divide Ss into two groups (one- taking the reporter’s part, and the other one- taking the scientist’s part) and take notes

                                        Lesson 9
Task
Objective
Skills  Focus
Grammar



Grammar:
 Short exchanges among native speakers on a wide variety of topics
To carefully consider short exchanges amongst native speakers, to identify, tense sequence, prepositions, pronouns, possessive adjectives, possession, word order ,syntax

Grammar
Topic:
A variety of real life situations


Teaching Grammar Section:
Role-play real life dialogues covering a wide variety of grammatical phenomena by means of simulations, information-gap activities, narrating stories

                                                   Lesson 10
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Vocabulary



Vocabulary:
A number of short exchanges amongst native speakers describing situations, naming objects, describing people and identifying locations
To learn & break down words in context, to develop vocabulary in authentic English , to interact in the TL

Vocabulary
Topic:
A variety of texts, i.e. technology, health, environment, fashion, education & tourism

Teaching vocabulary:
Thematically-related topics covered in course books, videos, on the internet, in newspapers, magazines and in the lyrics of songs


                                         Lesson 11
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Reading
Reading:
Part One:
A multiple choice text testing knowledge based on a variety of topics, i.e. education, technology, health








To activate top-down and bottom-up skills, to test skimming and scanning, to infer messages , to interpret writer’s ideas
Reading
Topic:
A reading text related to a number of issues of public concern
Teaching Part One:
It comes in the form of newspaper , website, magazine articles, class readers, encyclopedias, manuals, medical books

                                                         Lesson 12

Task


Objective

Skills Focus

Reading
Reading :
Part Two:
A series of short reading texts in a brochure covering a topic of common interest to all readers, i.e. tourism, in the form of a multiple –choice text











To scan, to activate bottom-up processing skills, to locate information, to infer writer’s messages and to interpret ideas


Reading
Topic:
A number of brochures related to the main topic, i.e. tourism

Teaching Part Two:
Exposure to authentic material, such as brochures, tourist guides, internet advertisements , video/cable TV commercials



                                             Lesson 13
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Reading
Reading Part Three:
A multiple choice text covering a wide variety of social issues, such as  the Media, tourism, health, education, technology, engineering
To focus on getting the main idea, to locate for specific information, to infer writer`s opinion , to interpret meaning, to identify lexical items in context
Reading
Topic:
A wide variety of texts coming from university brochures, media reports, medical journals, company reports, magazine articles related to technology and engineering



Teaching Part Three:
Subscription to magazines and newspapers to be acquainted with text types of the kind, to promote out of class reading, to expose them to newspapers , journals, magazines and to train them to search information on the website related to topics of interest
                                          Lesson 14
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Writing
Writing:
Part One:
A newspaper extract is assigned as the main topic of coverage; based on the topic of interest, candidates are invited to write a formal letter to the editor of the newspaper ,asking for further information or expressing their views to the matter
To consider the given situation and underline appropriate information ,to determine the style and register, to practice cohesion and coherence



Writing
Topic:
Exposure to a wide variety of  newspaper articles and exploitation of them


Teaching Writing Part One:
Subscription to Newsweek magazine, to familiarize oneself with text types of the kind, to exploit the genres, to determine style and register, to work on the Process-Writing Approach
                                            Lesson 15
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Writing
Writing Part Two:
Based on the newspaper article above, candidates are asked to write an essay, covering both sides (positive/negative) of it and recommend solutions.
To comprehend the main idea of the topic, to determine style and register and to connect fully ideas in the piece, to unify it as a whole piece of writing
Writing
Topic:
Exposure to a wide variety of text types in newspaper articles and on online newspaper articles

Teaching Writing Part two:
Exposure to a wide variety of newspapers related to issues of public concern; candidates will gather ideas respective to any piece of information from the task, establish the relevant framework and match up the gathered information with the appropriate paragraphs of the framework
                                               Lesson 16
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Speaking

Speaking Part One:
A friendly conversation between the candidate and the examiner, a get-to-know situation.











To establish rapport between the candidate and the examiner, to use it as a springboard for successive tasks, and to be given the opportunity to talk about oneself, in a friendly, relaxed atmosphere.
Speaking
Topic:
Situations, in which one is given to talk about oneself in two-three minutes.

Teaching Speaking Part One:
Use of questionnaires, quizzes, surveys, descriptions of places, practice talking about family, schooling and likes/dislikes




                                                Lesson 17



Task


Objective

Skills Focus

Speaking
Speaking Part Two:
A task comprising three options related to the same theme; the candidate is invited to ask the examiner a number of questions to obtain information about the theme they need to know.
To gather information relating to a specific task, to seek data that will lead to informed choices
Speaking
Topic:
Charts relating to a main topic, i.e. hotel management and containing different data about characters wishing to get a job at a hotel


Teaching Speaking Part Two:
Topics of public concern , i.e. Tourism, with collection of  different data about holiday resorts in a brochure;
(Learner Training) candidates will
 keep notes in favour of/against options, that will lead them to make informed choices
                                                Lesson 18
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Speaking
Speaking Part Three:
With the informed choices at hand, the candidates need to explain the choices they have made and to reject the rest, explain the reasons why, at the same time.
To make informed choices, to reject options and to justify one’s opinion
Speaking
Topic:
Charts with collected data that will lead to informed choices

Teaching Speaking Part Three:
All informed choices to consider in a list, with in favour of/against columns, and a list of conjunctions (causative, concessions) to make informed choices and to reject others
(Learner Training)
To practice  justifying  their choices and explain why they reject the other two  options

                                               Lesson 19
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Listening and Speaking (Integrated)

Listening Part Two:
A radio interview about an issue of public interest, between a reporter and an expert on the topic, i.e. Genetic Modified food;












To get the main idea of the issue, to keep notes whilst listening (only once) to remember detailed information, to gather ideas related to the topic











Listening





















 Topic:
A radio interview based on an issue of public concern, i.e. Medicine

Teaching Listening Part Two (integrated with Speaking):
Access to the Internet on radio stations, such as the BBC World Radio, to listen to it whilst keeping notes about positive/negative sides of the issue to be covered
Speaking Part Two:
With the radio interview, candidates should collect data in favour of/against Genetic Modified food, expound views on the topic and take sides.

To categorise ideas accordingly, to express one`s view on the matter and to make informed choices
Speaking
Topic:
A set of two columns containing both sides of the issue (positive /negative).


Teaching Speaking Part Two (integrated with Listening):
With the set of two columns covering both sides (positive/negative)
And a list of conjunctions to connect/ reject ideas, candidates proceed to make informed choices and expound their views on the topic.
 











                                            Lesson 20
Task
Objective
Skills Focus
Grammar
Vocabulary
Reading
Writing (integrated)
Reading Part Two:
A series of short texts relating to a main theme, i.e. Tourism- Hawaii.




















To test scanning, to locate for specific information, to infer messages
Reading
Topic:
A brochure from a Tourist Guide, advertising different resorts in Hawaii.


Teaching Reading Part Two:
In the brochure, different resorts are advertised for which candidates are invited to search for specific information, find out advantages/
Disadvantages for each resort and
Work on expansion/ retrieval to thematically- related lexical items of Tourism.
Writing Part One:
A formal letter to the editor of the newspaper/ magazine (leaflet).



To integrate reading with writing and to practice style and register
Writing
Topic:
An extract from the leaflet about different resorts in Hawaii, which will be used as a springboard for the formal letter.


Teaching Writing
Part One:
From the leaflet, there will be an extract on which candidates will be asked to write a formal letter to the manager of the hotel, of one of the resorts, stating the hotel and the resort they will choose to stay. They will develop ideas to produce a unified piece of writing; they will practice cohesion and coherence, and they will also have the opportunity to revise grammatical areas.






































                                                 APPENDIX 2
                                       Needs Analysis Questionnaire
                                 (Adapted from. Nu nan 1985 :67-70)


Foreign Language Centre:
                                                                                     Date :


Name:
Family Name:
Age :
Country of Origin :
Address:
Marital Status:                                           
School:
Work:
First language:
Other languages:
Language Learning:

Why do you want to continue to learn English?
Are you interested in professional or educational purposes?
  1. Do you like to learn English by LISTENING?
                                                           READING?
                                                           WRITING?
                                                          SPEAKING?
  1. Do you mostly like to study grammar?
                                       Learn new words?
                                       Practise reading skills?
                                      Learn to write in English?
                                       Speak fluently?
  1. Do you like to learn English by:
                             ……….cassettes
                             ……….games
                            ……….talking to English native and non-native speakers
                            ……….studying English books
                           ………..watching TV?
What is the most important for you? Please number them from 1-5 above.
  1. Reading:
Do you use a dictionary at all? Yes / No
What do you read in English?
                                         Simple stories
                                          Literature
                                         Newspapers
                                         Magazines
                                         Articles
                                         Brochures
                                        Advertisements : shopping
                                                                     Housing
                                                            Employment ?
                                                            Bus timetables?
                                                           Train / boat itineraries?
                                                           Maps / directories ?
                                                           Notes/ memos?
What are the most important for you to learn now?

e. Writing:
Do you ever write letters?
                               Essays?
                               Notes to other people?
                                Fill in personal data?
Which is the most important for you to learn now?

Do you have access to the Web?
Do you like to purchase goods online?
Do you like to work online?
Do you have e-mail?


f. Listening and Speaking:

Who do you speak with in English?
How much do you understand?
A little?
Not much?
A lot?
Everything?


Who is it most important for you to learn to speak with now?
                                                                           Shop assistants?
                                                                           Neighbours and friends?
                                                                           Bus drivers?
                                                                         Medical people?
                                                                         Teachers?
                                                                         Tourists?
                                                                        Colleagues at work?
                                                                        Passengers on boats / trains?
                                                                       Employers?
                                                                        Others?


Do you watch English films on T.V. or at the cinema?
Do you listen to English songs on the radio?
How much can you understand?






g. How do you learn best?


No
A little
Good
Best

Alone?








Pairs?




Small groups?




Class?




Outside class?







h. What do you feel are the most important things for you to learn in this term?
       a) To obtain the certificate?
       b) To revise what you have been taught so far and to refresh your memory?



i.                    How much time is available for study now:
                                          Per day………………
                                          Per week……………..


Where would you mostly like to study?


  1.  At the foreign language self-access centre……………………..
  2. At home…………………………………………………


  1. How often do you want assessment:
                 Every week…………………..
                 Every month………………….
                 A term report card…………………..


 A certificate upon completion of the course………………………………
The ECCE certificate itself after the exam venue………………………..



                                     

                                     APPENDIX 3


                             EVALUATION FORM
(Adapted from Nun an 1988)

It is extremely essential of the instructor and syllabus designer of this course to keep informed about its effectiveness. As a result, I would be grateful if you assessed this course, by circling the appropriate choice of the numbered ones from each one of the statements below:


{Key – 5-outstanding, 4-above average, 3-average, 2-below average, 1-unsatisfactory}


  1. The course met perfectly my needs. 1 2 3 4 5
  2. I was totally satisfied with the selection of materials. 1 2 3 4 5
  3. The materials were closely related to the objectives of this course. 1 2 3 4 5
  4. The teaching sessions were motivating and intriguing; they sustained interest throughout. 1 2 3 4 5
  5. All instructions were clear. 1 2 3 4 5
  6. The instructor was interested in student progress at all times and intervened in cases of regression. 1 2 3 4 5
  7. The class understood what was wanted at all times. 1 2 3 4 5
  8. Every student was involved at some point. 1 2 3 4 5
  9. Student groupings and sub-groupings were appropriate. 1 2 3 4 5
  10. There were no cultural misunderstandings. 1 2 3 4 5
  11. Positive class atmosphere and appropriate pacing of the sessions. 1 2 3 4 5
  12. A wide variety of activities and genuine communication in the lessons. 1 2 3 4 5
  13. Opportunities for speaking and written practices. 1 2 3 4 5
  14. Relevant degree of difficulty for the programme. 1 2 3 4 5
  15. Normal duration of the course. 1 2 3 4 5
  16. The course assisted in developing the skills necessary for the exam. 1 2 3 4 5
  17. The course provided candidates with sufficient recycling of all four skills of the language. 1 2 3 4 5
  18. Good general classroom management. 1 2 3 4 5








                                LIST OF REFERENCES



 Altman B. H. & Cashin E. W. {Kansas State University} “Writing a Syllabus”
file://C:\Documents%20and%20Settings\ΓΡΗΓΟΡΗΣ\Τα%20εγγραφα%20μου\WRITI..... 18/06/2007

     Clark John L. (1987) “Curriculum Renewal in School Foreign Language      Learning” Oxford University Press

Munby J. (1978) “Communicative Syllabus Design” Cambridge University Press


Nun an D. (1988) “The Learner-Centred Curriculum” Cambridge Applied Linguistics


Nun an D. (1988) “Syllabus Design” Oxford and Oxford English: Oxford University Press


Richards J. C. and Rodgers T. S. (2001) “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” University of Hawaii Manoa: Cambridge University Press


Wilkins D.A. (1976) “Notional Syllabuses” Oxford : Oxford University Press


Yalden J. (1983) “The Communicative Syllabus: Evolution, Design & Implementation” Pergamon Press Ltd: The Pergamon Institute of English




Course books:

1. Moutsou E. (2005) “Plus Michigan ECCE Practice Tests » MM Publications
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